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Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. ... The monocytes in turn are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells can be generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells may contribute to the development of therapeutic strategies for a variety of immune-mediated disorders.
DCs differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could provide a more reliable, consistent solution. DCs have now successfully been differentiated from hESCs. The technique involves the use of four growth factors and their successive removal from culture, resulting in accumulation of DCs with phenotypic, morphological, and immunostimulatory properties comparable to those of classical human monocyte-derived DCs. In addition to the application of hESC-derived DCs in basic research and novel approaches to cancer immunotherapy, they may also play a central role in the field of regenerative medicine.
Tolerogenic DCs differentiated from hESCs may be used to persuade the immune system of the recipients of cell replacement therapy to tolerate allogeneic tissues differentiated from the same hESC line. Such an approach may help to address the immunological barriers that threaten to derail the clinical application of hESCs.
In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT), dendritic cells (DCs) as the most potent antigen-presenting cells play a central role in the development of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), in graft-vs-leukemia or -malignancy reactions and in fighting infectious complications. Functional maturity and distribution of DC sub-types (DC1 and DC2) differ between the different stem cell sources used (bone marrow, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilised peripheral blood and cord blood) resulting in various rates of graft-vs-host disease and graft-vs-leukemia activity.
Although DC recovery following stem cell transplantation is prompt, graft-vs-host disease and the use of immunosuppressive drugs result in qualitative and quantitative disturbances in DC homeostasis and have been observed for up to 1 year after transplantation.
Complete donor DC chimerism seems to be a pre-requisite for the development of chronic GVHD and for graft-vs-leukemia activity, at least following reduced-intensity transplants, although in the early phase of acute graft-vs-host disease the presence of host antigen-presenting cells is essential.

What is a Dendritic Cell?

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems.

Where do Dendritic Cells Come From?

Dendritic cells (DC) are bone marrow-derived cells that are specialized to take up, process and present antigen, and have the capacity to stimulate resting T cells in the primary immune response. DC are a unique population that is likely to derive from a myeloid precursor cell.

What is a Dendritic Cell Vaccine?

Dendritic cell vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are rare leukocytes that are uniquely potent in their ability to present antigens to T cells, and this property has prompted their recent application to therapeutic cancer vaccines.

How is the Dendritic Cell Activated?

Innate recognition of infection in vertebrates can lead to the induction of adaptive immune responses through activation of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are activated directly by conserved pathogen molecules and indirectly by inflammatory mediators produced by other cell types that recognize such molecules.

Are Dendritic Cells Innate or Adaptive?

The function of dendritic cells (DCs) in linking innate to adaptive immunity is often summarized with two terms. DCs are sentinels, able to capture, process and present antigens and to migrate to lymphoid tissues to select rare, antigen-reactive T cell clones.