By definition, pluripotent stem cells are able to generate any one of the cell types that contribute to adult tissues and therefore offer significant potential for cell replacement therapies for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases. Rather than merely treating the symptoms of disease, the availability of standardised and renewable sources of cell types for the replacement of those compromised through disease or the natural process of ageing may be fully restorative, offering potential cures. One of the greatest obstacles to realising this vision is the ability of the recipient’s immune system to mount an immune response against the foreign tissue, causing its rejection in much the same way as it might reject an organ allograft. Research in Oxford aims to determine the nature and magnitude of the immunological barriers that operate in the unique context of cell replacement therapy while developing novel approaches to the induction of immunological tolerance in order to secure the indefinite survival of the grafted tissue.
Although the challenges that immunology poses for regenerative medicine should not be underestimated, stem cells also offer many opportunities for intervention in disease states with an underlying immunological basis. Understanding the role played by stem cells in constructing primary lymphoid tissues such as the thymus may, for instance, suggest strategies for its subsequent restoration in old age following thymic involution.
Furthermore, the use of pluripotent stem cells as a source of dendritic cell and T cell subsets provides unparalleled opportunities for intervening in the outcome of an immune response through strategies for immunotherapy, a field which has a long and fruitful history in Oxford.
T Cells Cellular Immunotherapy
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface.
What is T Cell OR T Lymphocyte Transplant?
In T-cell-depleted transplants, the bone marrow cells harvested from a donor are first manipulated in the laboratory to remove T cells, which can cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) if transplanted into a patient. The remaining cells, including blood-forming stem cells, are then infused into the patient.
What is the Adoptive Transfer of T Cells?
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient. The cells may have originated from the patient or from another individual. The cells are most commonly derived from the immune system, with the goal of improving immune functionality and characteristics.
How do Immunotherapy Drugs Work?
The immune system helps your body fight infections and other diseases. It is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer.
What is Adoptive T Cell Therapy?
A treatment used to help the immune system fight diseases, such as cancer and infections with certain viruses. ... These T cells are given back to the patient to help the immune system fight disease. Also called cellular adoptive immunotherapy.
How do you do a Stem Cell Transplant?
Stem cell transplantation, sometimes referred to as bone marrow transplant, is a procedure that replaces unhealthy blood-forming cells with healthy cells. ... Intense chemotherapy or radiation therapy kills the patient's stem cells. This stops the stem cells from making enough blood and immune cells.
CAR T Cells (Chimeric Antigen Receptors T Cells)
CAR T Cells; Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers. A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer.
What are CAR T Cells?
Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs), (also known as Chimeric Immunoreceptors, Chimeric T cell receptors, artificial T cell receptors) are engineered receptors, which graft an arbitrary specificity onto an immune effectors cell (T cell).
What Drugs are used for Immunotherapy?
Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment that boosts the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses substances made by the body or in a laboratory to improve or restore immune system function.
How do Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors work?
Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (PD-1) OR CD279 (Cluster of Differentiatin-279) is a checkpoint protein on immune cells called T cells. It normally acts as a type of “off switch” that helps keep the T cells from attacking other cells in the body.
It does this when it attaches to Programmed Death-Ligand-1 (PD-L1), OR Cluster of Differentiation-274 (CD274) a protein on some normal (and cancer) cells.
What is an Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor?
A type of drug that blocks certain proteins made by some types of immune system cells, such as T cells, and some cancer cells. These proteins help keep immune responses in check and can keep T cells from killing cancer cells. ... Some immune checkpoint inhibitors are used to treat cancer.
What is T Cell Receptor?
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
How does the T Cell Receptor Work?
The receptors on the surface of B cells (BCRs) can bind to soluble antigens, while T cell receptors (TCRs) can only recognize an antigen when it is complexes with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of other cells. T cell receptor binding to MHC-antigen complex.