They are in a sense, the cells from which all else “Stems”. Bioethicist Alexander Capron of the World Health Organization described a stem cell as, “the foundation of organisms, the stalk from which everything buds and branches.”
Stem cells may be either embryonic or adult (Somatic). As a fertilized egg divides, the multiplying embryonic stem cells differentiate into or become all of the diverse tissues of the body, such as lungs, liver, brain, hair, heart.
Stem Cells are special cells with the amazing power to transform into any tissue or organ in your body. It is due to these special powers that they have the potential to treat over 80 life threatening diseases and disorders.
Although, there are various types of stem cells that exist in the human body, stem cell therapy makes use of two main types, namely Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC).
The great thing about stem cells is that they can be extracted from a number of sources, like embryo, umbilical cord, cord blood, placenta, bone marrow, teeth, etc. The most abundant source of stem cells is the placenta (Chorion & Decidua), amniotic sac and amniotic fluid. For other sources.